Fruticose Lichens at Barwinnock Herbs

Fruticose, bush-like Group

Introduction to the Fruticose Group

Their shrubby or bush-like, structure is attached at a single point and the thallus is pendulous or stands up away from the substrate.

The thallus structure is symmetrical with an outer cortex over the inner algal layer. Usnea, the beard lichen, has radially symmetrical fibres and a supporting central core. Ramalina is symmetrical across the thickness of its lobes and there is no difference between the upper and lower surfaces.

Usnea subfloridana, Beard lichen

Usnea subfloridana, Beard lichen
Usnea subfloridana, "beard lichen" on willow

This particularly well grown Usnea is 22cm long.

Ramalina calicaris

Ramalina calicaris on willow

Grey-green thallus with edges turned up (canaliculate). Apothecia slightly fawn coloured.

Dobson says mostly found on a basic bark like willow and that this is a declining species

Ramalina fraxinea

Ramalina fraxinea on a dead willow branch.

This fine specimen, which is 17cm long, illustrates why Ramalinas are sometimes referred to as gristle or strap lichens.

The thongs are just 2-4mm wide.

Only a very few cup shaped apothecia on short stalks.

Ramalina fastigiata

Ramalina fastigiata
Ramalina fastigiata

A short and upright thallus covered with apical apothecia. Commom on nutrient rich bark

Evernia prunastri, Foliose Group

Evernia prunastri, Foliose Group
Evernia prunastri, Foliose Group

As the algal layer is only under the upper cortex it is foliose but included here to allow comparison with the superficially similar Ramalinas.

Test with potassium hydroxide solution indicates yellow and this differentiates it from the Ramalinas.

Known as “oak moss”, it has been used as a fixative for perfume, as a dyeing agent, ground up to make hair powder and as a wadding for shotguns. Also favoured by long tailed tits for nesting.